15. The Asteridas’s ambush. Od. book 4, lines 670-671 και book 4, 844-847:​
«… ὄφρα μιν αὖτις ἰόντα λοχήσομαι ἠδὲ φυλάξω
πορθμῷ Ἰθάκης τε Σάμοιό τε παιπαλοέσσης
,. …»
«… ἔστι δέ τις νῆσος μέσσῃ ἁλὶ πετρήεσσα,
μεσσηγὺς Ἰθάκης τε Σάμοιό τε παιπαλοέσσης,
Ἀστερίς, οὐ μεγάλη, λιμένες δ’ ἔνι ναύλοχοι αὐτῇ
ἀμφίδυμοι· τῇ τόν γε μένον λοχόωντες Ἀχαιοί. …»​

As you can see the Suitors’ ambush takes place in a rock island inside a STRAIT (= πορθμῷ).The word «ἔνι» = in front of defines that in front of the rock island there are two ports safe from winds where you can set an ambush, to lurk as Doliha (1) and Palaiokaravo (2) according to our theory.

We have the Asterida of Daskalio (3). Thiakians as well as Assos also have Asterida. We have Asterida in a STRAIT...

... Telemachus by-passes it coming from the Ehinades on top. After an hour he reaches the first seashore of Ithaca.​
Who doesn’t have a strait?​
Lefkada’s theories place Asterida in the middle of the sea in Arkoudi and Atokos, and Poros who places it haphazardly far from Patras!!!​

Those theories remind us of other erratic ones of foreign and local position seekers contrasting the realism of the epics adding unreal elements in the Homeric geography. As they do in the case of Asterida. Asterida is in a strait. Between the Homeric Ithaca and Homeric Sami – the contemporary Thiaki.

16. The arrow at first, leaving the bow, oscillates its tail like a fish. Later it calms down and continues!​

So when Odysseus marked the axes, trying to pass the arrow through some, unknown to us, hole or corner, so that they would not be knocked down, due to the back oscillation, they would have to stand away from him.

The axes themselves, however, were far apart, since the ditch dug by Telemachus to place them was long:​
«…Πρῶτον μὲν πελέκεας στῆσεν, διὰ τάφρον ὀρύξας
πᾶσι μίαν μακρήν, καὶ ἐπὶ στάθμην ἴθυνεν,
ἀμφὶ δὲ γαῖαν ἔναξε. …» Odyssey book 21, lines 120-122

CONCLUSION: The hall that housed 108 suitors, 6 servants and dozens of other staff, should be the size of a Palais de sports.
And therefore, both the room in Thiaki and the living room in Poros do NOT meet the specifications of the epic

The show is over!


We have completed our research regarding Homer’s Ithaca and its position as it is described in Odyssey.​
Ithaca as it is concluded in Iliad but mainly in Odyssey has to fulfill these sixteen indisputable arguments:​
1. Ithaca must be in the central Ionian sea and it’s part of the Odysseus’s empire, the people of which are Cephalonians.
2. In front of Homer’s Ithaca is Mt Nirito a large and grandiose leafy mountain.
3. Ithacans live in the westernmost part of Odysseus’s empire. Their area is low and features lovely sunsets.
4. The rest of Odysseus’s islands are lying more toward the East and exposed to the sun.
5. Argos, Odysseus’s dog apart from hares also hunted roe deer and wild goats in larger areas.
6. Rafts carrying sheep, goats and oxen were the means of crossing from Cephalonia municipality to that of Ithaca.
7. Scheria is almost as far from Ithaca as Thesprotia, - starting point to Dodoni’s oracle. So it is Kerkyra.
Phaeacians brought Odysseus directly from Scheria – Corfu to an already known seashore where the sand’s thickness allowed to slide half of the ship ashore by the impetus exerted by the rowers (Od. book 13, 114-115). So it is Atheras.
8. The distance between the pig paddock and the palace should be four hours using the path and 2.5 hours by the proper way. Ithaca’s size should be large since the same route by ship lasts from morning to afternoon.​
9. The beaches of Ithaca must be defined by straight line shorelines since the name Ithaca derives from the Homeric word Ithys which means straight.
10. Athena, when she scandalously supports Odysseus, Telemachus and Penelope, has the adjective Pallas, a word reminiscent of Paliki and Vibrating Rock = Kounopetra.
11. The transition to Pylos from Ithaca takes one night. The return from Pylos to Ithaca takes half a day plus one night. Therefore take place in different ports that are far apart.
12. The Taphians are neighbors with the Ithacans on the same island, since from there you go on foot to Ithaca (Od. book 1, line 173).
13. The island of Ithaca has a rich aquifer, great aquifer and its streams flow all year round (Οd. book 13, 247). Thus, the arid Eryssos and Thiaki are excluded.
14. Ithaca is a place like a peninsula that communicates with a large land from which you can cross there on foot with great difficulty (Οd. books 14, 190. book 16, line 59 and 224).
15. The cartel of suitors to kill Telemachus, as he turns from Pylos to Ithaca, takes place in ports behind a rocky islet in a STRAIT, which is located between Homeric Ithaca and Homeric Sami. The islet must be towards Homeric Ithaca, between them and close to it, " μεσσηγὺς " (Οd. book 4, 671 & 844-847).​
16. In order for the arc fight to take place (feat), a large space is needed. Odysseus’ palace must have had palais de sports dimensions (rapsody 21).

We examined the following candidate areas: Paxoi, Lefkada, Assos and Cephalonian Friskado, contemporary Ithaki (Thiaki), Cephalonian Paliki, and Cephalonian Poros, from special descriptions in Iliad and Odyssey; we concluded in the 16 points of the list we have published in series in local and international media. The points included a special analysis on Phaeaceans. Most are inaccessible to the descriptions of the Epics except that of Paliki. We also examined the English Paliki theory (Odysseus Unbound – 2005) where due to terrain and special geological characteristics IS NOT proven that Paliki was cut-off from the rest of Cephalonia as an independent island. Although it looks like it resembles our own theory, there are four points in total that makes it lag behind it. Nevertheless, it is much better than other theories which lag behind in over ten points.

We consider Frenchman Jul Le Noan’s as a continuation of Gerasimos Volteras reseach on Paliki, better than the English theories because following the same motive, differs in that specific point and correctly does not consider Paliki as an independent island but a peninsula..

In conclusion Homeric Ithaca is the Cephalonian Paliki, considering that Nikos Livadas avoids even the difficult point of Asterida, our theory is valid for all the points. Since he accepts “Ithaca” as a general name for Odysseus’s domains including Aigilipa and Krokyleia in Eressos then indeed the Asterida’s ambush it involved Ithaca from this side and craggy Sami on a strait on the other side.


Almost the entire list eliminates Paxoi and specifically the point that Ithaca needs large areas and roe deer and wild goat hunting grounds. It also needs Cephalonian people, Nerito Mountain, passing from Cephalonian municipality with rafts and to go to Ithaca on foot.

A slightly better theory and second to last is the one of contemporary Ithaki that “holds” the name due to the mistaken belief that Homeric Ithaca was a small place. The roe deer and wild goats of point 5 proves the opposite. Also the small number of suitors is explained effortlessly from the fact that Ithaca is “home” to Telemachos, Odysseus as well as to the ruthless Antinoos and Evrymahos. Who else would have chances for being a suitor? Number 4 as well as the other points are overwhelming.

Fiveth best theory after ours, the English, Assos and Lefkada , is that of Poros which eliminated for 10 different reasons! There aren’t islands between itself and Elis; it has not low grounds in the West; there’s no raft access to Cephalonian municipality, needs less time to return than to go and has not Asterida in the form of a strait. Also, on its engraved stone there is not a dog – Odysseus coat of arms, but a lion... So also eliminated is the possibility of the grave to be that of Odysseus.

The theories of Lefkada follow as more complete. Even though Lefkada’s shape resembles that of Paliki and as such can absorb Homeric properties, however this approach is neutralized by the first two points of the list combined with the identification of Paliki itself as well as other factors. HOWEVER, compared to other theories that of Lefkada remains competitive.

We were surprised to find less arguments against Assos' and Fiskardo's compared to all other theories even though one cannot go from there to any municipality of Cephalonia by means of rafts eliminates them from the list of candidates. Eryssos is also on not low grounds. The time of the return journey from Pylos almost fits (see Paliki) it diverges on the departing trip either to Fiskardo through the channel or to Assos circumnavigating Paliki, almost the same by 220 miles.

The English theories of Paliki have only minimum deviations from what Homer says and their only fault is the one created by themselves. They severed Paliki and as such NONE can go to Ithaca ON FOOT. Amongst other problems presented by this theory is that they place the Asterida ambush in Fanari of St Theodori after Lassi.

Arguments resulting in rejection of following theories:


CONCLUSION: All of these are simply theories and geographical Homeric approaches. All except one which will always constitute a historical distortion and an unpleasant joke: The giving a name to an island which only minimally fits to what Homer says.

The seventy theories created by all for Homeric Ithaca are owed to the fact that the island took arbitrarily the name that is irrelevant to what Homer says in 12 points, which is more than all except Paxoi.


Τελευταία επεξεργασία:
Νικόλαος Καμπάνης - Mentor

Νικόλαος Καμπάνης - Mentor

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